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Copyright: Citation Examples for Crediting Sources

Resources about copyright and fair use.

In General:

Often a publisher, copyright holder, or permissions grantor(s) require specific wording AND/OR may stipulate placement of the credit within an illustration or table, etc.  Such requests supersede the suggestions below.

APA Style

APA 6th Edition (quickly find a print copy at the Fl. 2 reference desk)

For permission to Quote, Reprint, or Adapt see section: 6.10    For formatting suggestions see Footnotes: Section 2.12

“Footnotes are used to provide additional content or to acknowledge copyright permission status.

Number all footnotes consecutively in the order in which they appear in the manuscript with superscript Arabic numerals.  Footnote numbers should be superscripted, like this,1 following any punctuation mark except a dash. A footnote number that appears with a dash—like this2---always precedes the dash . . . .”

Please refer to the entire section 2.12; there is quite a bit more information and directions.

  • A numbered footnote is generally used for long quotations
  • Tables-a table note (see section 5.16)
  • Figures-credit at the endo of the caption (see section 5.23).


From [or The data in column 1 are from] “The Title of Article,” by A. N. Author and C. O. Author, year, Title of Journal,Volume, p. xx. Copyright [year] by the Name of Copyright Holder. Reprinted [or adapted] with permission.


From [or The data in column 1 are from] Title of Book 9p. xxx0, by A. N. Author and C. O. Author, year, Place of Publication: Publisher. Copyright [year] by the Name of Copyright Holder. Reprinted [or adated] with permission.



MLA Modern Language Association

From the Third Edition 2008:

 Permissions see section: 5.6.4 page 162

 “For each permission you obtain, you must insert a statement at an appropriate place in the thesis or dissertation. Permission statements may appear individually in the test where the reprinted materials occur, or, especially if numerous, they may be given collectively in the acknowledgments section or on the copyright page.” 

 The typical statement consists of:

 Full bibliographic reference (i.e., author, title, city of publication, publisher, year of publication)

  • Followed by a standard credit line (e.g., “Reprinted by permission of . . .”)
    • Or wording stipulated by the copyright holder in the permission letter.

Chicago Manual of Style

16th Edition see: Credit Lines: sections 3.28—36. 3.75. and 14.49

            From 3.31 Crediting material that requires permission

            “In addition to author, title, publication details, and (occasionally) copyright date, the credit line should include any page or figure number,  If the work being credited is listed in the bibliography or reference list, only a shortened form need appear in the credit line (see third example).

For material acquired from a commercial agency, see 3.35.  For proper citation style, see chapters 14 and 15.”


Reproduced by permission from Mark Girouard, Life in the English Country House: A Social and Architectural History (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1978), 162.

Reproduced by permission from George B. Schaller et al., The Giant Pandas of Wolong (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985), 52. © 1985 by the University of Chicago.

Reprinted by permission from Duncan (1999, fig. 2).

If you are using the 15th Edition: see Credit Lines 12.40-48  and Footnotes 13.43-45


Turabian (A variation of Chicago Manual of Style)

Permission must be granted to reproduce work of art under copyright restrictions. Author, title, then page number, plate number, or figure number, copyright date, and copyright owner.

Examples (for images):

Reprinted, by permission, from John Rewald, Post-Impressionism: From van Gogh to Gauguin, p. 443. © 1978 by The Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Indicate when using a personal photograph: Photograph by the author

Photography commissioned by the writer: Photograph by Mary Smith

Photograph without restrictions: For an image without copyright restrictions, use the word 'courtesy' in the credit:    Photograph courtesy of Delta Airlines