Geospatial data are electronic data that include some kind of location information, which could be latitude longitude coordinates, an address, a zip code or a county. These data are generally used in Geographic Information Systems (GIS), cartography, and remote sensing software packages. Data can be obtained from central clearinghouses (see the Sources box, below), local organizations, and/or generated by researchers in the field.
From the interesting GIS Lounge portal:
There is a distinct difference between GIS and Geospatial data, in that GIS refers more narrowly to the traditional definition of using layers of geographic data to produce spatial analysis and derivative maps. Geospatial is more broadly used to refer to all technologies and applications of geographic data. For example, popular social media sites such as Foursquare and Facebook use “check-ins” that allow their users the ability to geographically tag their statuses. While those applications are considered to be geospatial, they don’t fall underneath the stricter definition of what makes up a geographic information system.
There are two basic geospatial data models:
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