A short summary or overview explaining the general focus of a book, article, or other source. A time saving strategy is to read the abstract to check the source’s relevancy to your project.
Abstract:The current study examined the amount of time American college students spent on academics and explored whether functioning indicators (i.e., positive affect, negative affect, tiredness, and binge drinking) rose and fell with academic time across days and semesters. College students ( N = 735) were followed longitudinally and completed 14 daily diaries within each of 7 semesters ( N = 56,699 days). The results revealed that academic time decreased slightly during the middle semesters and then increased in later semesters. Furthermore, on days when students spent more time on academics, they reported less positive affect, more tiredness, and less binge drinking; however, the strength and direction of associations depended on the analysis level and whether it was a weekend. Positive affect, for instance, was inversely associated with academics across days, but the reverse was true across semesters. These results emphasize the importance of considering the temporal context in research on adolescent and young adult time use.
Greene, K. M., & Maggs, J. L. (2017). Academic time during college: Associations with mood, tiredness, and binge drinking across days and semesters. Journal of Adolescence, 56, 24-33. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2016.12.001
Ehrenreich, B. (2001). Nickel and dimed: On (not) getting by in America. Henry Holt and Company.
In this book of nonfiction based on the journalist's experiential research, Ehrenreich attempts to ascertain whether it is currently possible for an individual to live on a minimum-wage in America. Taking jobs as a waitress, a maid in a cleaning service, and a Walmart sales employee, the author summarizes and reflects on her work, her relationships with fellow workers, and her financial struggles in each situation.
An experienced journalist, Ehrenreich is aware of the limitations of her experiment and the ethical implications of her experiential research tactics and reflects on these issues in the text. The author is forthcoming about her methods and supplements her experiences with scholarly research on her places of employment, the economy, and the rising cost of living in America. Ehrenreich’s project is timely, descriptive, and well-researched.
Example from: Purdue University OWL
Waite, Linda J., et al. "Nonfamily Living and the Erosion of Traditional Family Orientations Among Young Adults." American Sociological Review, vol. 51, no. 4, 1986, pp. 541-554. The authors, researchers at the Rand Corporation and Brown University, use data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and Young Men to test their hypothesis that nonfamily living by young adults alters their attitudes, values, plans, and expectations, moving them away from their belief in traditional sex roles. They find their hypothesis strongly supported in young females, while the effects were fewer in studies of young males. Increasing the time away from parents before marrying increased individualism, self-sufficiency, and changes in attitudes about families. In contrast, an earlier study by Williams cited below shows no significant gender differences in sex role attitudes as a result of nonfamily living.
Example from: Cornell University Libraries
Short title for the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for scholars in the social and behavioral sciences. The manual provides guidelines for writing such as document structure, writing style, tone, and formatting for in-text citations and reference list. (Sample paper) Learn more about APA Style. See also Chicago Style, MLA style
Davis, J.J., Roscigno, V.J., & Wilson, G. (2016). American Indian Poverty in the Contemporary United States. Sociological Forum, 31(1), 5-28. doi: 10.1111/socf.12226
Tanaka, M.D. (2016). Learning and Teaching Together: Weaving Indigenous Ways of Knowing into Education. University of British Columbia Press.
Davis, James J., Vincent J. Roscigno, and George Wilson. "American Indian Poverty in the Contemporary United States." Sociological Forum 31, no. 1 (March 2016): 5-28
Tanaka, Michele T. D. Learning and Teaching Together: Weaving Indigenous Ways of Knowing into Education. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press, 2016.
Davis, James J., et al. "American Indian Poverty in the Contemporary United States." Sociological Forum, vol. 31, Mar. 2016, pp. 5-28. doi:10.1111/socf.12226
Tanaka, Michele T. D. Learning and Teaching Together: Weaving Indigenous Ways of Knowing into Education. Vancouver;: UBC Press, 2016. Print.
A unique identifier (like a street address) given to library items so they can be easily found. Items about the same subject often have similar call numbers. Major call number systems include Dewey Decimal and Library of Congress. Learn more on the Understanding Call Numbers guide. See also Call Number: Library Congress
A classification system using a combination letters and/or numbers developed by the Library of Congress. This is the system used in most academic libraries including Milner Library. Learn more on the Understanding Call Numbers guide. See also Call Number
Example of a Library of Congress call number
A type of database, searchable online, used by libraries that includes information about the items they own or subscribe to. Each item’s record in the catalog provides information like title, author, call number, and floor location. Learn more about Using the Catalog.
Short title for The Chicago Manual of Style created and written by the University of Chicago Press for scholars in a variety of disciplines. The manual provides guidelines for writing such as document structure, writing style, tone, and formatting for in-text citations and reference list. (Sample paper) Learn more about Chicago Style. See also APA style, MLA style
See In-text Citation
A specific format for an in-text citation or a note citation within a paper, presentation, article, etc. Different professional organizations include this information in the different style manuals they create. Learn more on the Citing Sources guide. See also MLA style; APA style, Chicago Style
Protection and legal rights provided by United States law [title 17, U.S. Code] to the authors of “original works.” These include literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and other intellectual works. This can affect how students and faculty access and use information for their research. Learn more about Copyright.
A searchable set of records. The set of records could be for articles, books, images, etc. Each record includes specific information about an item comprised of fields. See also Catalog, Field(s), Search Engine
Examples of databases: Milner Library Catalog, Amazon, Yellowpages.com, Zappos, Apple Store, Google Play
Examples of article databases: Academic Search Premier, ERIC, Web of Science
Parts of the internet (typically databases) unavailable through conventional search engines, like Google or Yahoo. One must pay, subscribe, login, or know the direct URL to visit these sites and databases. Learn more with this Deep Web video.
Examples: My Illinois State, Library Databases, PayPal
A specific component of a database record that includes unique information. In search engines, fields can be used to limit or focus a search. See also Record(s)
Examples: Author (e.g. George Orwell), Title (e.g. 1984), Subject (e.g. Dystopia)
When an entire item is available online.
See Open Web
See Deep Web
Involves finding sources, analyzing the material, evaluating the credibility of the sources, and using and citing sources ethically and legally. See also Information Fluency
The ability to critically think while engaging with, creating, and utilizing information and technology regardless of format and platform. Learn more about Information Fluency at ISU. See also Information Literacy
A specific method to clearly identify a source within the body of a research or scholarly document (e.g. paper, book, article, report, etc.) Learn more on the Citing Sources guide. See also Citation, Citation Style
An APA citation uses the author's last name and publication date.
Example (APA style):
For example, "serious games" usually refers to games that support serious purposes, such as health, education, or government needs (Schrier, 2016).
A Chicago Note/Bibliography citation uses a footnote or endnote.
Example (Chicago Style):
Video game research did not really get rolling until the late 1980s and, through the 1990s, researchers were pretty honest about acknowledging there was not much evidence to support beliefs that even the most violent video games were harmful.13
An MLA citation uses the author's last name and page numbers.
Example (MLA style):
Students who develop dynamic communications skills through playing video games, build their self-sufficiency to interact, interpret, and write in a style that is unfamiliar (Vance 120-134).
A specific type of search method within a database, catalog, or search engine that uses minimal limits or parameters. The search term(s) (word or phrase) may be located anywhere in the record (title, abstract, full text, subject heading, etc.) See also Author Search, Field(s), Search, Subject Search, Title Search
A classification system developed by the Library of Congress used to assign subject headings and a call number. This process often groups items about a similar topic together. This system is used by most academic libraries including Milner Library. See also Call numbers, Call Numbers: Library of Congress, Subject Heading
Short title for the MLA Handbook created and written by The Modern Language Association for scholars in the Humanities. The handbook provides guidelines for writing such as paper structure, writing style, tone, and formatting for in-text citations and reference list. (Sample paper) Learn more about MLA Style. See also APA style, Chicago Style.
Not influenced by personal feelings or opinions when representing facts; impartial. Learn how to check for Objectivity
The parts of the internet that is available for free and can be accessed by anyone. This also where anyone can publish on the web. Free web search engines (Google, Bing, Yahoo...) search only this portion of online items.
A publication containing articles on a variety of topics, written by various authors in a non-scholarly or general interest style. Most magazines are heavily illustrated, contain advertising, and are printed on glossy paper. The articles are usually short (less than five pages long), frequently unsigned, and tend not to include a bibliography or list of references.
Examples: Psychology Today. Time, Newsweek, Popular Mechanic
Items or original works that are a firsthand record of a topic, historical events, practices, conditions, or original research. They have not been filtered through interpretation or evaluation. Learn more about Primary Sources. See also Secondary Sources, Tertiary Sources.
An evaluation criteria used to determine how applicable the information is for the purpose of your paper, speech, presentation, etc. See also Accuracy, Authority, Currency, Purpose Learn how to check for Relevancy
A publication comprised of articles and devoted to research and scholarship in a specific discipline or field of knowledge. Articles undergo a rigorous review process before acceptance. See also Peer-reviewed
Examples: The College Mathematics Journal, Ethnicity and Inequalities in Health and Social Care, Modern Fiction Studies
In library research, using structured mechanisms such as a catalog, search engine, database, etc., either online or print-based, to find information relevant to a topic or project. Learn more about the Search Process.
Software and programming created to retrieve information from a database, computer, or the Internet.
Examples: Google, Yahoo, Bing, Milner Catalog, Academic Search Premier. See also Database
A combination of search terms and commands entered into a search engine's or database's search boxes. The combination you enter influences your results. Learn more about Searching and Refining Results. See also Search Terms, Search Strategy
media and body image
"wind power" and bird mortality
(drink* or alcohol*) and college
Example: 1) Selecting search terms that represent the main concepts of a research question or thesis statement. 2) Select appropriate search engines or databases for the topic. 3) Identify subject heading(s) from search results.
A publication which specifies the guidelines to writers for styling their paper, speech, etc. such as paper structure, writing style, tone, and formatting for in-text citations and reference list. Learn more about Styles. See also APA style, Chicago Style, MLA style
Items that compile information from secondary and primary sources to provide a broad overview or representation of a topic or related topics. Learn more about Tertiary Sources. See also Primary Source, Secondary Source
A search strategy used to retrieve all different endings of the word by placing special symbol or wildcard at the end of a word. Databases and search engines all use different symbols or wildcards, but the asterisk ( * ) is the most commonly used. See also Wildcard
A symbol put anywhere in a search term to have a database or search engine search for any letter(s) in that designated position. See also Truncation
Illinois State University
Campus Box 8900
201 North School Street
Normal, Il 61790-8900