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MLA Style

A quick overview of how to use the MLA Style and examples of in-text citations and references for a variety of different sources.

Examples of In-Text Citations and References for Other Sources

Note: Formatting of multiple authors follows the same format as books. 

Reference

Levinson, David, and Gertrud Pfister, editors. “Yachting.” Berkshire Encyclopedia of World Sport, 3rd edition, vol. 3, Berkshire Publishing Group, 2013, pp. 1203-05.

In-text Citation

Numerous studies have replicated these results utilizing the same methods (Levinson and Pfister 1204).

Levinson and Pfister highlight numerous studies that have replicated these results utilizing the same methods (1204).

Reference

Ross, Jeffrey Ian, editor. “Hooliganism.” Encyclopedia of Street Crime in America, SAGE Publications, 2013, pp. 203–05. http://www.ilstu.eblib.com/EBLWeb/patron/?target=patron&extendedid=P_1207759_0.

In-text Citation

Numerous studies have replicated these results utilizing the same methods (Ross 204).

Ross highlights numerous studies that have replicated these results utilizing the same methods (204).

Government publications with named authors can often be cited and referenced the same as a book or report. In the reference, if a publishing office such as the Government Printing Office (GPO) is not listed, use the name of the government (country or state), the agency, and if included the specific department, separated by commas.

If the publication includes a report or series number, place that information before the publisher information.

Reference

Stewart, Hayden, et al. The Cost of Satisfying Fruit and Vegetable Recommendations in the Dietary Guidelines. Economic Brief Number 27, United States, Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, 2016, http://purl.fdlp.gov/GPO/gpo69773.

In-text Citation

Numerous studies have replicated these results utilizing the same methods (Stewart et al. 12).

Stewart et al. highlights numerous studies that have replicated these results utilizing the same methods (12).

If no individual person is stated as the author, then the government and agency are treated as corporate authors. List the name of the government (country or state), the agency, and if included the specific department.

The use of et al. for three or more agencies or departments does not apply.

If the publication includes a report or series number, place that information before the publisher information.

Reference

United States, Department of Agriculture. Avian Influenza, USDA Has Taken Actions to Reduce Risks but Needs a Plan to Evaluate Its Efforts : Report to Congressional Requesters. United States Government Accountability Office, 2017. http://purl.fdlp.gov/GPO/gpo80626.

In-text Citation

Numerous studies have replicated these results utilizing the same methods (United States, Dept. of Agriculture 12).

The United States Dept. of Agriculture highlights numerous studies that have replicated these results utilizing the same methods (12).

If the agency is also the publisher, start the reference with the title.

Reference

Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers. Revised July 2014, NIH Publication No. 12-4350, National Diabetes Education Program, 2014, http://purl.fdlp.gov/GPO/gpo71493.

In-text Citation

Numerous studies have replicated these results utilizing the same methods (Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers, 1).

Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers highlights numerous studies that have replicated these results utilizing the same methods (1).

At the end of the reference, indicate how the interview was facilitated. You do not need to include your name as the interviewer.

Reference

Adams, Samuel. Signing of the Constitution. 4 May 2014. Personal Interview.

Adams, Samuel. Signing of the Constitution. 4 May 2014. Telephone Interview.

Adams, Samuel. Signing of the Constitution. 4 May 2014. Zoom Interview.

Adams, Samuel. “Re: Signing of the Constitution.” Received by John Smith. 4 May 2014. Email Interview.

In-text Citation

Numerous studies have replicated these results utilizing the same methods (Adams).

Adams highlights numerous studies that have replicated these results utilizing the same methods.

If a report or series number is present, place that information before the publisher information.

Reference

White, Susan, and Rachel Ivie. Number of Women in Physics Departments: A Simulation Analysis. Report. Statistical Research Center of the American Institute of Physics, 1 July 2013, pp. 1–13, https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED547644.pdf.

In-text Citation

Numerous studies have replicated these results utilizing the same methods (White and Ivie 1204).

White and Ivie highlight numerous studies that have replicated these results utilizing the same methods (1204).

Reference

Hagen, Christopher K. We’ve Been Here: Possibilities for Prolonging Experiential Intimacy in Art. 2016. Illinois State University, Master of Fine Arts (MFA) Thesis, http://ir.library.illinoisstate.edu/etd/504.

In-text Citation

Numerous studies have replicated these results utilizing the same methods (Hagen 204).

Hagen highlights numerous studies that have replicated these results utilizing the same methods (204).