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Copyright and Fair Use

Resources about copyright and fair use.

In General:

Often a publisher, copyright holder, or permissions grantor(s) require specific wording AND/OR may stipulate placement of the credit within an illustration or table, etc.  Such requests supersede the suggestions below.

Datasets are a bit different from the examples below. The resource below might be helpful.

From the DCC (Digital Curation Centre) Datasets and Linking to Publications

APA Style

APA 7th Edition (quickly find a print copy at the Fl. 2 reference desk)

APA 7th:  Overall copyright information begins on page 384-390, starting with Section 12.14.  There are many examples.

Copyright attribution formats are found on page 389, section 12.18

The APA Blog often provides quick, helpful answers.

  • If you have a license from a publisher for use of an image, figure, table, scales/questionnaires etc., read through the license as usually the exact  wording for the copyright attribution is specified.  This exact wording specified in the license is required and supersedes any of the wording found in style guides such as APA, MLA etc.
  • Here is a general example--be sure to substitute the source (from a website as in this example) for the article, book, blog etc.

From Title of Webpage, by A.A. Author, year, Site Name (DOI or URL). Copyright [year] by Name, OR In the public domain., OR Creative Commons license such as CC BY-NC.  Reprinted with permission. OR Adapted with permission.

The last statement, reprinted or adapted etc. is included only if permission has been sought and obtained.

Need help with other citations in APA style? Try Milner APA citation guide

Chicago Manual of Style

16th Edition see: Credit Lines: sections 3.28—36. 3.75. and 14.49

From 3.31 Crediting material that requires permission

“In addition to author, title, publication details, and (occasionally) copyright date, the credit line should include any page or figure number, If the work being credited is listed in the bibliography or reference list, only a shortened form need appear in the credit line (see third example).

For material acquired from a commercial agency, see 3.35. For proper citation style, see chapters 14 and 15.”


Reproduced by permission from Mark Girouard, Life in the English Country House: A Social and Architectural History (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1978), 162.

Reproduced by permission from George B. Schaller et al., The Giant Pandas of Wolong (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985), 52. © 1985 by the University of Chicago.

Reprinted by permission from Duncan (1999, fig. 2).

If you are using the 15th Edition: see Credit Lines 12.40-48 and Footnotes 13.43-45


Turabian (A variation of Chicago Manual of Style)

Permission must be granted to reproduce work of art under copyright restrictions. Author, title, then page number, plate number, or figure number, copyright date, and copyright owner.

Examples (for images):

Reprinted, by permission, from John Rewald, Post-Impressionism: From van Gogh to Gauguin, p. 443. © 1978 by The Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Indicate when using a personal photograph: Photograph by the author

Photography commissioned by the writer: Photograph by Mary Smith

Photograph without restrictions: For an image without copyright restrictions, use the word 'courtesy' in the credit:    Photograph courtesy of Delta Airlines

MLA Modern Language Association

From the Third Edition 2008:

 Permissions see section: 5.6.4 page 162

 “For each permission you obtain, you must insert a statement at an appropriate place in the thesis or dissertation. Permission statements may appear individually in the test where the reprinted materials occur, or, especially if numerous, they may be given collectively in the acknowledgments section or on the copyright page.” 

 The typical statement consists of:

 Full bibliographic reference (i.e., author, title, city of publication, publisher, year of publication)

  • Followed by a standard credit line (e.g., “Reprinted by permission of . . .”)
    • Or wording stipulated by the copyright holder in the permission letter.