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Citing Sources

Learn more about why we cite the sources we use, how to cite sources in a specific style, and strategies for avoiding plagiarism.

Types of Self-plagiarism

Self plagiarism is a unique type of plagiarism. Self-plagiarism is when an author reuses or recycles content that has already been published. The content can be either data or written text. The table below shows the different ways how self-plagiarism can occur (content from Stephen Gilliver).


Data Data Augmentation Old data with new supporting data presented as a new study.
Duplicate Publication Essentially the paper or article published in two different journals.
Redundant Publication Previously published data (with or without new data).
Text Reuse of published text in a new publication.
Salami Slicing
LPU: Least
Publishable Unit
Different results as separate papers when best presented together.

Stephen Gilliver. Forgive me for repeating myself: Self-plagiarism in the medical literature. European Medical Writers Association 2012; 21(2): 150-3. Adapting from: Miguel Roig. Avoiding plagiarism, self-plagiarism, and other questionable writing practices: a guide to ethical writing.