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Legal Studies

Guide to law resources useful for the Legal Studies program and other law research needs.

Books

Formatting Styles (References/In-text Citing)

ALWD Guide to Legal Citation, Sixth Edition
[Illinois Courts' Supreme Court Rules references are included when applicable]


please note - pipe symbols and colors are utilized to highlight citation elements; they are not required

United States Supreme Court

Brown v. Bd. of Educ., 347 U.S. 483 (1954)
Case name | volume number | reporter | page number | (year of decision)

color coded example: Brown v. Bd. of Educ., 347 U.S. 483 (1954)

  • case name: Brown v. Bd. of Educ. [be sure to italicize]
  • volume number:  347
  • reporter:  U.S.
  • page number:  483
  • year of decision: 1954

ALWD 6th ed. help:

  • Chapter 12, Cases, "Fast Formats" (p. 56)
  • Appendix 1(A), "Primary Sources by Jurisdiction: Federal Primary Sources - 'United States Supreme Court (U.S.)'" (p. 346)
  • Appendix 3(E), "General Abbreviations - ''Names of Cases, Institutional Authors, and Periodical Titles" (p. 444-47)

Illinois Supreme Court - Public Domain format (for opinions issued since July 1, 2011)

Hooker v. Ill. State Bd. of Elections, 2016 IL 121077, ¶ 1
case name | year of decision | reporter | docket number | paragraph number (if applicable)

color coded example:  Hooker v. Ill. State Bd. of Elections, 2016 IL 121077, ¶ 1

  • case name:  Hooker v. Ill. State Bd. of Elections, [be sure to italicize & add comma at end]
  • year of decision:  2016
  • court system source:  IL
  • docket number:  121077, [be sure to add comma at end if a paragraph number is noted]
  • paragraph number:  ¶ 1

ALWD 6th ed. help:

  • Chapter 12, Cases, "Fast Formats" (p. 56)
  • Appendix 1(B), "Primary Sources by Jurisdiction: Illinois - 'Public domain format...'" (p. 363)
  • Appendix 3(E), "General Abbreviations - ''Names of Cases, Institutional Authors, and Periodical Titles" (p. 444-47)

Illinois Courts' Supreme Court Rules help:

Illinois Supreme Court (for opinions issued prior to July 1, 2011)

Williams v. Manchester, 228 Ill. 2d 404 (2008)
case name | volume number | reporter | page number | (year of decision)

color coded example:  Williams v. Manchester, 228 Ill. 2d 404 (2008)

  • case name:  Williams v. Manchester, [be sure to italicize & add comma at end]
  • volume number:  228
  • reporter:  Ill. 2d [abbreviation for Illinois Official Reports, 2nd series]
  • page number:  404
  • year of decision:  2008  [enclose in parentheses]

ALWD 6th ed. help:

  • Chapter 12, Cases, "Fast Formats" (p. 56)
  • Appendix 1(B), "Primary Sources by Jurisdiction: Illinois - 'Illinois Supreme Court (Ill.)'" (p. 363)

Federal Court of Appeals

Boulahanis v. Bd. of Regents, Illinois State Univ., 198 F.3d 663 (7th Cir. 1999)
case name | volume number | reporter | series number (if applicable) | page number | (court year of decision)

color coded example: Boulahanis v. Bd. of Regents, Ill. State Univ., 198 F.3d 663 (7th Cir. 1999)

  • case name: Boulahanis v. Bd. of Regents, Ill. State Univ., [be sure to italicize]
  • volume number:  198
  • reporter:  F. [abbreviation for the Federal Reporter]
  • series number (if applicable):  3d  [abbreviation for the third series]
    - note:  if citation is from the first series, do not include 1d
  • page number:  663
  • court:  7th Cir. [abbreviation for the Central District of Illinois] [start parentheses]
  • court year of decision: 1999) [end parentheses]

ALWD 6th ed. help:

  • Chapter 12, Cases, "Fast Formats" (p. 56)
  • Appendix 1(A), "Primary Sources by Jurisdiction: Federal Primary Sources - United States Circuit Courts of Appeals'" (p. 346)
  • Appendix 3(E), "General Abbreviations" (p. 444-47)

Illinois Appellate Court - Public Domain format (for opinions issued since July 1, 2011)

Bd. of Regents of the Univ. of Ill. v. Ill. Educ. Lab. Relations Bd., 2018 IL App (4th) 170059
case name | year of decision | reporter | opinion number | paragraph number (if applicable)

color coded example: Bd. of Regents of the Univ. of Ill. v. Ill. Educ. Lab. Relations Bd., 2016 IL App (4th) 170059

  • case name:  Bd. of Regents of the Univ. of Ill. v. Ill. Educ.  Lab. Relations Bd.,
    [be sure to italicize & add comma at end]
  • year of decision:  2016
  • court system sourceIL App
  • district abbreviation:  (4th)  [enclose in parentheses]
    - note: Appellate Court District abbreviations are 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th
  • opinion number:  170059

ALWD 6th ed. help:

  • Chapter 12, Cases, "Fast Formats" (p. 56)
  • Appendix 1(B), "Primary Sources by Jurisdiction: Illinois - 'Illinois Appellate Court...'" (p. 363-64)

Illinois Courts' Supreme Court Rules help:

Illinois Appellate Court (for opinions issued prior to July 1, 2011)

People v. Acri, 277 Ill. App. 3d 1030 (3d Dist. 1996)
case name | volume number | reporter | page number | volume number | reporter | page number | (district court | year of decision)

color coded example:  People v. Acri, 277 Ill. App. 3d 1030 (3d Dist. 1996)

  • case name:  People v. Acri, [be sure to italicize & add comma at end]
  • volume number:  277
  • reporter:  Ill. App. 3d [abbreviation for Illinois Appellate Court, 3rd series]
  • page number:  1030, [be sure to add comma at end]
  • district court: 3d Dist. [start with parentheses]
    - note: Appellate Court District abbreviations are 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th
  • year of decision:  1996  [end with parentheses]

ALWD 6th ed. help:

  • Chapter 12, Cases, "Fast Formats" (p. 56)
  • Appendix 1(B), "Primary Sources by Jurisdiction: Illinois - 'Illinois Appellate Court...'" (p. 363-64)

Federal District Courts

Harper v. Bd. of Regents, Ill. State Univ., 35 F. Supp. 2d 1118 (C.D. Ill. 1999)
case name | volume number | reporter | series number | page number | (court year of decision)

color coded example: Harper v. Bd. of Regents, Ill. State Univ., 35 F. Supp. 2d 1118 (C.D. Ill. 1999)

  • case name: Harper v. Bd. of Regents, Ill. State Univ. [be sure to italicize]
  • volume number:  35
  • reporter:  F.Supp. [abbreviation for the Federal Supplement]
  • series number (if applicable):  2d  [abbreviation for the second series]
    - note:  if citation is from the first series, do not include 1d
  • page number:  1118
  • court:  (C.D. Ill. [abbreviation for the Central District of Illinois] [start parentheses]
  • court year of decision: 1999) [end parentheses]

ALWD 6th ed. help:

  • Chapter 12, Cases, "Fast Formats" (p. 56)
  • Appendix 1(A), "Primary Sources by Jurisdiction: Federal Primary Sources - 'United States District Courts'" (p. 347)
  • Appendix 3(E), "General Abbreviations" (p. 444-47)

U.S. Constitution

U.S. Const. amend. XIII, § 1
source | portion | portion

color coded example: U.S. Const. amend. XIII, § 1

  • source:  U.S. Const.
  • portion:  amend. XIII  [abbreviation for 13th Amendment]
  • portion (if applicable):  § 1 [section one]

ALWD 6th ed. help:

  • Chapter 13, Constitutions, "Fast Formats" (p. 101)

Illinois Constitution

Ill. Const. art. XIII, § 5
source | portion | portion

color coded example: Ill. Const. art. XIII, § 5

  • source:  Ill. Const.
  • portion:  art. XIII  [abbreviation for Article 13]
  • portion (if applicable):  § 5 [section five]

ALWD 6th ed. help:

  • Chapter 13, Constitutions, "Fast Formats" (p. 101)

U.S. Code

Title IX, Education Amendments of 1972, 20 U.S.C. §§ 1681-1688
official name | title number | code | section number(s)

color coded example: Title IX, Education Amendments of 1972, 20 U.S.C. §§ 1681-1688

  • official name:  Title IX, Education Amendments of 1972
    - note:  there may not always be a name for the specific code
  • title number:  20
  • code:  U.S.C.
  • section number(s):  §§ 1681-1688
    - note:  if year of code is specified and is not in the official name (as in this example), it can be added in parentheses after the section number

ALWD 6th ed. help:

  • Chapter 14, Statutory Codes and Session Laws, "Fast Formats" (p. 105)
  • Appendix 1(A), "Primary Sources by Jurisdiction: Federal Primary Sources - 'Statutory compilations'" (p. 348)

Illinois Compiled Statutes

State of Illinois' version

110 ILCS 675/20-5 (1996)
chapter number | code | act number/section number | (year)

color coded example: 110 ILCS 675/20-5 (1996)

  • chapter number:  110
  • code:  ILCS [abbreviation for Illinois Compiled Statutes]
  • act number:  675
  • section number (if applicable):  /20-5 [include forward slash]
  • year:  (1996) [enclose in parentheses]

West's Smith-Hurd Illinois Compiled Statutes Annotated version

110 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 675/20-5 (West 1996)
chapter number | code | act number/section number | (publisher, year)

color coded example: 110 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 675/20-5 (West 1996)

  • chapter number:  110
  • code:  Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. [abbreviation for Illinois Compiled Statutes Annotated]
  • act number:  675
  • section number (if applicable): 20-5 [include forward slash]
  • publisher (if applicable): (West [first element inside parentheses]
  • year:  1996) [last element inside parentheses]

ALWD 6th ed. help:

  • Chapter 14, Statutory Codes and Session Laws, "Fast Formats" (p. 105)
  • Appendix 1(B), "Primary Sources by Jurisdiction: Illinois - 'Statutory compilations'" (p. 364)

Code of Federal Regulations

34 C.F.R. § 300.103 (2017)
title number | code | section number | (year of edition)

color coded example: 34 C.F.R. § 300.103 (2017)

  • title number:  34
  • code:  C.F.R.
  • section number:  § 300.103
  • year of edition:  (2017) [enclose in parentheses]
    - note:  year of code does not need to be noted, if the cited portion is currently in effect and has not been subject to recent change

ALWD 6th ed. help:

  • Chapter 18, Administrative and Executive Materials, "Fast Formats" (p. 163)
  • Appendix 1(A), "Primary Sources by Jurisdiction: Federal Primary Sources - 'Administrative compilation'" (p. 349)

Illinois Administrative Code

Ill. Admin. Code tit. 23, § 226 (2016)
code | title number | part or section number | (year)

color coded example: Ill. Admin. Code tit. 23. § 226 (2016)

  • code:  Ill. Admin. Code
  • title:  tit. 23, [add comma at end]
  • part number or section number:  § 226
  • year:  (2016) [enclose in parentheses]

ALWD 6th ed. help:

  • Chapter 18, Administrative and Executive Materials, "Fast Formats" (p. 163)
  • Appendix 1(B), "Primary Sources by Jurisdiction: Illinois - 'Administrative compilations'" (p. 364)

Federal Register

Assistance to States for the Education of Children with Disabilities and Preschool Grants for Children With Disabilities, 71 Fed. Reg. 46540 (August 14, 2006) (to be codified at 34 C.F.R. pt. 300 and 301).
name of rule or regulation | volume number | Fed. Reg.|  page number | (month day, year) | (where rule or regulation will appear in C.F.R.)

color coded example:  Assistance to States for the Education of Children with Disabilities and Preschool Grants for Children With Disabilities, 71 Fed. Reg. 46540 (August 14, 2006) (to be codified at 34 C.F.R. pt. 300 and 301)

  • name of rule or regulation:  Assistance to States for the Education of Children with Disabilities and Preschool Grants for Children With Disabilities, [add comma at end]
    - note:  there may not always be a name
  • volume number:  71
  • source:  Fed. Reg.
  • page number:  46540
  • date:  August 14, 2006
  • codified location:   (to be codified at 34 C.F.R. pt. 300 and 301) [enclose in parentheses]
    - note: this is not always relevant

ALWD 6th ed. help:

  • Chapter 18, Administrative and Executive Materials, "Fast Formats" (p. 163)
  • Appendix 1(A), "Primary Sources by Jurisdiction: Federal Primary Sources - 'Administrative register'" (p. 349)

Illinois Register

31 Ill. Reg. 3128 (February 23, 2007)
volume number | source |  page number | (month day, year)

color coded example:  31 Ill. Reg. 3128 (February 23, 2007)

  • volume number:  31
  • source:  Ill. Reg.
  • page number:  3128
  • date:  (February 23, 2007) [enclose in parentheses]

ALWD 6th ed. help:

  • Chapter 18, Administrative and Executive Materials, "Fast Formats" (p. 163)
  • Appendix 1(B), "Primary Sources by Jurisdiction: Illinois - 'Administrative register" (p. 364)

Law Review/Journal Article

Jon B. Gould, The Precedent that Wasn't: College Hate Speech Codes and the Two Faces of Legal Compliance, 35 Law & Soc'y Rev. 345 (2001)
author(s), article title, volume journal page number (year)

color coded example: Jon B. Gould, The Precedent that Wasn't: College Hate Speech Codes and the Two Faces of Legal Compliance, 35 Law & Soc'y Rev. 345 (2001)

  • author:  Jon B. Gould, [put comma at end]
  • article title:  The Precedent that Wasn't: College Hate Speech Codes and the Two Faces of Legal Compliance, [be sure to italicize & put comma at end]
  • volume:  35
  • journal:  Law & Soc'y Rev. [abbreviation for Law and Society Review]
  • page number:  345
  • year:  (2001) [enclose in parentheses]

ALWD 6th ed. help:

  • Chapter 21, Law Reviews and Other Periodicals, "Fast Formats" (p. 204)
  • Appendix 3(E), "General Abbreviations - ''Names of Cases, Institutional Authors, and Periodical Titles" (p. 444-47)

Legal Encyclopedia Article

42 Am. Jur. 2d Injunctions § 81 (2017)
volume source edition title section (year)

color coded example: 42 Am. Jur. 2d Injunctions § 81 (2017)

  • volume:  42
  • source:  Am. Jur. [abbreviation for American Jurisprudence]
  • edition:  2d
  • topic:  Injunctions [be sure to italicize]
  • section:  § 81
  • year:  (2017) [year of update] [enclose in parentheses]

ALWD 6th ed. help:

  • Chapter 22, Dictionaries, Encyclopedias, and American Law Reports, "Fast Formats" (p. 216)

Treatise

Scott D. Lane, et al., Illinois Motions in Limine § 5:56 (2016)
author(s), source section (year)

color coded example: Scott D. Lane, et al., Illinois Motions in Limine § 5:56 (2016)

  • author:   Scott D. Lane, et al. [since there are three authors, the first is listed and followed by an et al.]
  • source:  Illinois Motions in Limine [be sure to italicize]
  • section:  § 5:56
  • year:  (2016) [year of update] [enclose in parentheses]

ALWD 6th ed. help:

  • Chapter 20, Books, Treatises, and Other Nonperiodic Materials, "Fast Formats" (p. 188)

The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation, Twentieth Edition


please note - pipe symbols and colors are utilized to highlight citation elements; they are not required

United States Supreme Court

Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)
Case name | volume number | reporter | page number | (year of decision)

color coded example: Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)

  • case name: Brown v. Board of Education
  • volume number:  347
  • reporter:  U.S.
  • page number:  483
  • year of decision: 1954

Bluebook 20th ed. help:

  • Bluepages, B10, Cases (pp. 10-17)
  • Rule 10, Cases (pp. 94-118)
  • Table T1.1, "United States Jurisdictions: Federal Judicial and Legislative Materials - 'Supreme Court '" (p. 233)

Illinois Supreme Court (for opinions issued since July 1, 2011)

Hooker v. Illinois State Board of Elections, 2016 IL 121077 ¶ 1
case name | year of decision | reporter | docket number | paragraph number

color coded example:  Hooker v. Illinois State Board of Elections, 2016 IL 121077 ¶ 1

  • case name:  Hooker v. Illinois State Board of Elections
  • year of decision:  2016
  • reporter:  IL [abbreviation for Illinois Official Reports]
  • docket number:  121077
  • paragraph number:  ¶ 1

Bluebook 20th ed. help:

  • Bluepages, B10, Cases (pp. 10-17)
  • Rule 10, Cases (pp. 94-118)
  • Table T1.3, "States and the District of Columbia: Illinois (Ill.) - 'Public domain format'" (p. 262)

Illinois Supreme Court (for opinions issued prior to July 1, 2011)

Williams v. Manchester, 228 Ill. 2d 404, 888 N.E.2d 1 (Ill. Sup. Ct. 2008)
case name | volume number | reporter | page number | volume number | reporter | page number | (court jurisdiction and name year of decision)

color coded example:  Williams v. Manchester, 228 Ill.2d 404888 N.E.2d 1 (Ill. Sup. Ct. 2008)

  • case name:  Williams v. Manchester, [be sure to add comma at end]
  • volume number:  228
  • reporter:  Ill.2d [abbreviation for Illinois Official Reports, 2nd series]
  • page number:  404, [be sure to add comma at end]
  • volume number:  888
  • reporter: N.E.2d  [abbreviation for North Eastern Reporter, 2nd series]
  • page number:  1
  • court jurisdiction and name: Ill. Sup. Ct.
  • year of decision:  2008  [enclose in parentheses]

Bluebook 20th ed. help:

  • Bluepages, B10, Cases (pp. 10-17)
  • Rule 10, Cases (pp. 94-118)
  • Table T1.3, "States and the District of Columbia: Illinois (Ill.) - 'Supreme Court...'" (p. 262)

Federal Court of Appeals

Boulahanis v. Board of Regents, Illinois State University, 198 F.3d 663 (7th Cir. 1999)
case name | volume number | reporter | series number (if applicable) | page number | (court year of decision)

color coded example: Boulahanis v. Board of Regents, Illinois State University, 198 F.3d 663 (7th Cir. 1999)

  • case name: Boulahanis v. Board of Regents, Illinois State University
  • volume number:  198
  • reporter:  F. [abbreviation for the Federal Reporter]
  • series number (if applicable):  3d  [abbreviation for the third series]
    - note:  if citation is from the first series, do not include 1d
  • page number:  663
  • court:  7th Cir. [abbreviation for the Central District of Illinois]
  • court year of decision: 1999

Bluebook 20th ed. help:

  • Bluepages, B10, Cases (pp. 10-17)
  • Rule 10, Cases (pp. 94-118)
  • Table T1.1, "United States Jurisdictions: Federal Judicial and Legislative Materials - 'Circuit Courts...'" (p. 234)

Illinois Appellate Court

Board of Regents of the Regency University System v. Reynard, 292 Ill.App.3d 968 (1997)
case name | volume number | reporter | series number | page | (year of decision)

color coded example: Board of Regents of the Regency University System v. Reynard, 292 Ill.App.3d 968 (1997)

  • case name:  Board of Regents of the Regency University System v. Reynard
  • volume number:  292
  • reporter:  Ill.App. [abbreviation for Illinois Appellate Court]
  • series number (if applicable):  3d  [abbreviation for the third series]
    - note:  if citation is from the first series, do not include 1d
  • page:  968
  • year of decision:  1997

Bluebook 20th ed. help:

  • Bluepages, B10, Cases (pp. 10-17)
  • Rule 10, Cases (pp. 94-118)
  • Table T1.3, "States and the District of Columbia: Illinois (Ill.) - 'Appellate Court...'" (p. 262)

Federal District Courts

Harper v. Board of Regents, Illinois State University, 35 F. Supp. 2d 1118 (C.D. Ill. 1999)
case name | volume number | reporter | series number | page number | (court year of decision)

color coded example: Harper v. Board of Regents, Illinois State University, 35 F. Supp. 2d 1118 (C.D. Ill. 1999)

  • case name: Harper v. Board of Regents, Illinois State University
  • volume number:  35
  • reporter:  F.Supp. [abbreviation for the Federal Supplement]
  • series number (if applicable):  2d  [abbreviation for the second series]
    - note:  if citation is from the first series, do not include 1d
  • page number:  1118
  • court:  C.D. Ill. [abbreviation for the Central District of Illinois]
  • court year of decision: 1999

Bluebook 20th ed. help:

  • Bluepages, B10, Cases (pp. 10-17)
  • Rule 10, Cases (pp. 94-118)
  • Table T1.1, "United States Jurisdictions: Federal Judicial and Legislative Materials - 'District Courts...'" (p. 235)

U.S. Constitution

U.S. CONST. amend. XIII, § 1
source | portion | portion

color coded example: U.S. CONST. amend. XIII, § 1

  • source:  U.S. CONST.
  • portion:  amend. XIII  [abbreviation for 13th Amendment]
  • portion (if applicable):  § 1 [section one]

Bluebook 20th ed. help:

  • Bluepages, B11, Constitutions (p. 17)
  • Rule 11, Constitutions (pp. 118-119)

Illinois Constitution

Ill. CONST. art. XIII, § 5
source | portion | portion

color coded example: Ill. CONST. art. XIII, § 5

  • source:  Ill. CONST.
  • portion:  art. XIII  [abbreviation for Article 13]
  • portion (if applicable):  § 5 [section five]

Bluebook 20th ed. help:

  • Bluepages, B11, Constitutions (p. 17)
  • Rule 11, Constitutions (pp. 118-119)

U.S. Code

Title IX, Education Amendments of 1972, 20 U.S.C. §§ 1681-1688
official name | title number | code | section number(s)

color coded example: Title IX, Education Amendments of 1972, 20 U.S.C. §§ 1681-1688

  • official name:  Title IX, Education Amendments of 1972
    - note:  there may not always be a title
  • title number:  20
  • code:  U.S.C.
  • section number(s):  §§ 1681-1688
    - note:  if year of code is specified and is not in the official name (as in this example), it should be added in parentheses after the section number

Bluebook 20th ed. help:

  • Bluepages, B12, Statutes, Rules, and Restatements (pp. 18-21)
  • Rule 12, Statutes (pp. 120-134)
  • Table T1.1, "United States Jurisdictions: Federal Judicial and Legislative Materials - 'Statutory compilations...'" (p. 236)

Illinois Compiled Statutes

110 ILL. COMP. STAT. 675/20-5 (1996)
chapter number | code | act number/section number | (year)

color coded example: 110 ILL. COMP. STAT. 675/20-5 (1996)

  • chapter number:  110
  • code:  ILL. COMP. STAT. [abbreviation for Illinois Compiled Statutes]
  • act number:  675
  • (if applicable): /
  • section number (if applicable):  20-5
  • year:  1996

Bluebook 20th ed. help:

  • Bluepages, B12, Statutes, Rules, and Restatements (pp. 18-21)
  • Rule 14, Administrative and Executive Materials (pp. 143-148)
  • Table T1.3, "States and the District of Columbia: Illinois (Ill.) - 'Statutory compilations'" (p. 262)

Code of Federal Regulations

34 C.F.R. §300.103 (2017)
title number | code | section number | (year of edition)

color coded example: 34 C.F.R. §300.103 (2017)

  • title number:  34
  • code:  C.F.R.
  • section number:  §300.103
  • year of edition:  2017
    - note:  year of code does not need to be noted, if the cited portion is currently in effect and has not been subject to recent change

Bluebook 20th ed. help:

  • Bluepages, B14, Administrative and Executive Materials (p. 22)
  • Rule 14, Administrative and Executive Materials (pp. 143-148)

Illinois Administrative Code

Ill. Admin. Code tit. 23, §226 (2016)
code | title number | part or section number | (year)

color coded example: Ill. Admin. Code tit. 23. §226 (2016)

  • code:  Ill. Admin. Code
  • title:  tit. 23
  • part number or section number:  §226
  • year:  2016

Bluebook 20th ed. help:

  • Rule 14, Administrative and Executive Materials, (pp. 143-148)
  • Table T1.3, "States and the District of Columbia: Illinois (Ill.) - 'Administrative compilations'" (p. 263)

Federal Register

Assistance to States for the Education of Children with Disabilities and Preschool Grants for Children With Disabilities, 71 Fed. Reg. 46540 (August 14, 2006) (to be codified at 34 C.F.R. pt. 300 and 301).
name of rule or regulation | volume number | Fed. Reg.|  page number | (month day, year) | (where rule or regulation will appear in C.F.R.)

color coded example:  Assistance to States for the Education of Children with Disabilities and Preschool Grants for Children With Disabilities 71 Fed. Reg. 46540 (August 14, 2006) (to be codified at 34 C.F.R. pt. 300 and 301)

  • name of rule or regulation:  Assistance to States for the Education of Children with Disabilities and Preschool Grants for Children With Disabilities
  • volume number:  71
  • source:  Fed. Reg.
  • page number:  46540
  • date:  August 14, 2006
  • codified location:   to be codified at 34 C.F.R. pt. 300 and 301

Bluebook 20th ed. help:

  • Bluepages, B14, Administrative and Executive Materials (p. 22)
  • Rule 14, Administrative and Executive Materials (pp. 143-148)

Illinois Register

31 Ill. Reg. 3128 (February 23, 2007)
volume number | source |  page number | (month day, year)

color coded example:  31 Ill. Reg. 3128 (February 23, 2007)

  • volume number:  31
  • source:  Ill. Reg.
  • page number:  3128
  • date:  February 23, 2007

Bluebook 20th ed. help:

  • Rule 14, Administrative and Executive Materials, (pp. 143-148)
  • Table T1.3, "States and the District of Columbia: Illinois (Ill.) - 'Administrative register'" (p. 263)

Law Review/Journal Article

Jon B. Gould, The Precedent that Wasn't: College Hate Speech Codes and the Two Faces of Legal Compliance, 35 Law & Soc'y Rev. 345 (2001)
author, article title, volume journal page number (year)

color coded example: Jon B. Gould, The Precedent that Wasn't: College Hate Speech Codes and the Two Faces of Legal Compliance, 35 Law & Soc'y Rev. 345 (2001)

  • author:  Jon B. Gould
  • article title:  The Precedent that Wasn't: College Hate Speech Codes and the Two Faces of Legal Compliance [be sure to italicize]
  • volume:  35
  • journal:  Law & Soc'y Rev. [abbreviation for Law and Society Review]
  • page number:  345
  • year:  2001

Bluebook 20th ed. help:

  • Bluepages, B16, Periodical Materials (pp. 23-24)
  • Rule 16, Periodical Materials (pp. 159-171)

Legal Encyclopedia Article

42 Am. Jur. 2d Injunctions § 81 (2017)
volume source edition title section (year)

color coded example: 42 Am. Jur. 2d Injunctions § 81 (2017)

  • volume:  42
  • source:  Am. Jur. [abbreviation for American Jurisprudence]
  • edition:  2d
  • title:  Injunctions [be sure to italicize]
  • section:  § 81
  • year:  2017 [year of update]

Bluebook 20th ed. help:

  • Bluepages, B15, Books and Other Nonperiodic Materials (pp. 22-23)
  • Rule 13, Books, Reports, and Other Nonperiodic Materials (pp. 149-158)

Treatise

Scott D. Lane, et al., Illinois Motions in Limine § 5:56 (2016)
author, source section (year)

color coded example: Scott D. Lane, et al., Illinois Motions in Limine § 5:56 (2016)

  • author:   Scott D. Lane, et al. [since there are three authors, the first is listed and followed by an et al.]
  • source:  Illinois Motions in Limine [be sure to italicize]
  • section:  § 5:56
  • year:  2016 [year of update]

Bluebook 20th ed. help:

  • Bluepages, B15, Books and Other Nonperiodic Materials (pp. 22-23)
  • Rule 15, Books, Reports, and other Nonperiodic Materials (pp. 149-158)

Publication Manual of the APA, 7th ed.


Chapter 11: Legal References, pp. 355-368

Legal Citation Guide

Cornell University's Legal Information Institute's (LII) Introduction to Basic Legal Citation by Peter Martin.

Data and Social Sciences Librarian

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Chad Kahl
he / him / his
Contact:
Office: Milner 419
(309) 438-3454
Website

Pinpoint References

Pinpoints are used to refer to the specific location of cited information from a source.

Depending on the source, pinpoints may be:

page numbers
  • note - many sources with page numbers will note an initial page, so put pinpoint references after them and a comma (e.g., 347 U.S. 483, 487)
  • note - if source title ends with a number, insert "at" before the pinpoint page reference (e.g., Ill. Exec. Order No. 2024-01, at 2 (Mar. 18, 2024))
  • note - consecutive pages are noted with a hyphen (-); if page number is 100 or higher, only use the last two digits (e.g., 100-01)
section (§) and paragraph () numbers
  • note - put space between symbol and letters and/or numbers that follow (e.g., §  3) (e.g.,   201)
  • note - utilize subsections or subparagraphs when possible (e.g., §  10.8.4) (e.g.,   10(c)(3))
  • note - if pinpoints are scattered across nonconsecutive sections or paragraphs, use two symbols:  §§ or

ALWD 6th ed. help:

  • Part 2, Rule 5, "Page Numbers" (p. 27-32)
  • Part 2, Rule 6, "Sections and Paragraphs" (p. 33-36)

 

Short Cites

Short citations are used after the initial full citation is made in a source.

Short cites include enough information to identify the authority material so the user can refer back to the full citation, if necessary.

Id. is utilized in reference to the immediately preceding authority.

  • note - It's always italicized with a period (because it's an abbreviation for the word idem).  It's capitalized when it begins a short citation.

Use of id. in a pinpoint reference:

  • note - if the immediately preceding authority has not changed, id. can be utilized to refer both to the source and the pinpoint reference
  • note - if the immediately preceding authority has changed, use a pinpoint reference:
    • if citing source used page numbers:
      (e.g., Id. at 438)
    • if citing sources does not use page numbers, such as (sub-)sections or (sub-)paragraphs:
      (e.g, Id. § 17(d)(4))
      (e.g., Id.  ¶ 165)

If id. cannot be used, refer to the name of the first party, unless they are a geographical unit or government entity
(e.g., Brown, 347 U.S. at 485)

ALWD 6th ed. help:

  • Part 2, Rule 11, "Full and Short Citation Formats" (p. 46-54)
  • Part 2, Rule 12.16, "Cases - 'Short Citations to Cases'" (p. 97-100)