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Scientific Styles

A guide providing an overview of different scientific / medical styles and information on how to use the CSE (Council of Science Editors) Scientific Style.

CSE Citation-Sequence and Citation-Name Structure of a Reference and Superscript Number

The following section provides examples for the CSE Citation-Sequence and Citation-Name format. Both use the same formatting for in-text citing and references. However, some source types require additional information and formatting.

Placement of the Reference Number

  • At the point of reference (citation)
  • Number is formatted as superscript
    - e.g. McCord’s study of species1 shows...
  • Multiple references are separated by a comma
    - e.g. Numerous studies1,5,9 have replicated these results indicating trends...
  • Number can appear at the end of a sentence after the period if appropriate
    - e.g. CDC protocols are essential to prevent contagions from spreading.10,19

References: Basic Structure

  • Second line of a reference is indented .5 inches (Hanging indent)
  • Authors names are listed last name first and the first and middle initials with no period
    - e.g. Adams, SJ
  • Individual elements are separated by periods