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Chicago Style

A quick overview of how to use the Chicago Style and examples of note and in-text citations and references for a variety of different sources.

Chicago Style Author/Date Structure of a Reference and In-text Citation

The following section provides examples for the Author-Date format. The formatting for in-text citations and references, regardless of source type, follow the same general format. However, some source types require additional information and formatting.

In-text Citations: Basic Structure

  • Includes the author's last name and year of publication
  • Are placed in parentheses
  • Author's name and publication date appear together
  • If author's name is used in the sentence, only the date is in parentheses
  • When the author's name is not used in the sentence, the author's name and publication date are placed at the end of the sentence.

References: Basic Structure

  • Second line of a reference is indented .5 inches (Hanging indent)
  • First author's name is listed last name, first name  (e.g. Adams, Samuel)
  • Individual elements are separated by periods
  • Publication date appears after the author's name
  • Parentheses are not used