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Chicago Style

A quick overview of how to use the Chicago Style and examples of note and in-text citations and references for a variety of different sources.

Chicago Style Notes & Bibliography Structure of a Reference and Note

The following section provides examples for the Notes & Bibliography format. The formatting for notes and references, regardless of source type, follow the same general format. However, some source types require additional information and formatting.

Placement of the Note Number

  • At the end of the sentence
  • After the period
  • Number is formatted as superscript - e.g. ...same methods.1

Notes: Basic Structure

  • First line of a note is indented .5 inches (First-line indent)
  • Authors' names are listed first name last name (e.g. Samuel Adams)
  • Individual elements are separated by commas
  • Publication information is placed in parentheses

Short Note Example

The more common note format and used with a bibliography.

Allison, Essence of Decision, 34–35.

Full Note Example

Includes more information about a source. Use this option for a short paper where you won't  include a bibliography.

Graham T. Allison, Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis, 2nd ed. (New York: Longman, 1999), 34–35.

References: Basic Structure

  • Second line of a reference is indented .5 inches (Hanging indent)
  • First author's name is listed last name, first name  (e.g. Adams, Samuel)
  • Individual elements are separated by periods
  • Publication information is not in parentheses