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Chicago Style

A quick overview of how to use the Chicago Style and examples of note and in-text citations and references for a variety of different sources.

Examples of In-Text Citations and References for Other Sources

Note: Formatting of multiple authors follows the same format as books.

Reference

Levinson, David, and Gertrud Pfister, eds. 2013. “Yachting.” Berkshire Encyclopedia of World Sport. Great Barrington, MA: Berkshire Publishing Group.

In-text Citation

Numerous studies have replicated these results utilizing the same methods (Levinson and Pfister 2013).

Levinson and Pfister (2013) highlights...

Reference

Ross, Jeffrey Ian, ed. 2013. “Hooliganism.” Encyclopedia of Street Crime in America. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. http://www.ilstu.eblib.com/EBLWeb/patron/?target=patron&extendedid=P_1207759_0.

In-text Citation

Numerous studies have replicated these results utilizing the same methods (Ross 2013).

Ross (2013) highlights...

For legal works the Chicago Manual of Style recommends using either the The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation or the ALWD Guide to Legal Citation.

Reference

Stewart, Hayden, Jeffrey Hyman, Andrea Carlson, and Elizabeth Frazão. 2016. The Cost of Satisfying Fruit and Vegetable Recommendations in the Dietary Guidelines. Economic Brief, Number 27. Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. http://purl.fdlp.gov/GPO/gpo69773.

In-text Citation

Numerous studies have replicated these results utilizing the same methods (Stewart et al. 2016).

Stewart et al. (2016) highlights...

Interviews are not included in the reference list and should be cited parenthetically. Published interviews should be cited and referenced based on the delivery format (e.g. Fresh Air - NPR as a radio broadcast; 60 Minutes as a television broadcast, etc.)

In-text Citation

Planning for the signing of the document was almost complete (J. Smith, interview via Zoom, May 4, 2019).

J. Smith (interview via Zoom, May 4, 2019) highlights...

Note: Personal comminication is any form of communication with you and another person. This can be in the form a text, phone call, Zoom meeting, direct message, etc. These are not included in the reference list and should be cited parenthetically.

In-text Citation

Planning for the signing of the document was almost complete (J. Smith, pers. comm., May 4, 2014).

J. Smith (pers. comm., May 4, 2014) highlights...

Reference

White, Susan, and Rachel Ivie. 2013. “Number of Women in Physics Departments: A Simulation Analysis. Report.” College Park, MD: Statistical Research Center of the American Institute of Physics. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED547644.pdf.

In-text Citation

Numerous studies have replicated these results utilizing the same methods (White and Ivie 2013).

White and Ivie (2016) highlights...

Reference

Hagen, Christopher K. 2016. “We’ve Been Here: Possibilities for Prolonging Experiential Intimacy in Art.” Masters of Fine Arts, Normal, Illinois: Illinois State University. http://ir.library.illinoisstate.edu/etd/504.

In-text Citation

Numerous studies have replicated these results utilizing the same methods (Hagen 2016).

Hagen (2016) highlights...