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APA Style

A quick overview of how to use the APA Style and examples of in-text citations and references for a variety of different sources.

Examples of In-Text Citations and References for Other Sources

Note: Formatting of multiple authors follows the same format as books and articles.

'Retrieved from' is no longer used in electronic source references except when there is no publication date.

Reference

The Hershey Company. (2022). Form 10-k. https://www.sec.gov/edgar/browse/?CIK=47111&owner=exclude

The Hershey Company. (2022, February 16). Form 8-k. https://hershey.gcs-web.com/sec-filings?c=115590&p=irol-sec

In-text Citation

Parenthetical: Profits in several subsidiaries rose over the most current fiscal year (The Hershey Company, 2022).

Narrative: The Hershey Company (2022) reported profits rose in the last fiscal year...

Reference

American Psychiatric Association (Ed.). (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5 (5th ed). American Psychiatric Association.

In-text Citation

Parenthetical: Numerous studies have replicated these results utilizing the same methods (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).

Narrative: American Psychiatric Association (2013) highlights...

Reference

Yachting. (2013). In D. Levinson & G. Pfister (Eds.), Berkshire Encyclopedia of World Sport (3rd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 1203–1205). Berkshire Publishing Group.

In-text Citation

Parenthetical: Numerous studies have replicated these results utilizing the same methods (Levinson & Pfister, 2013).

Narrative: Levinson & Pfister (2013) highlights...

'Retrieved from' is no longer used in electronic source references except when there is no publication date.

Reference

Hooliganism. (2013). In J. I. Ross (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Street Crime in America (pp. 203–205). SAGE Publications. http://www.ilstu.eblib.com/EBLWeb/patron/?target=patron&extendedid=P_1207759_0

In-text Citation

Parenthetical: Numerous studies have replicated these results utilizing the same methods (Ross, 2013).

Narrative: Ross (2013) highlights...

APA does not designate government publications as a separate source type and they often can be cited like a book, technical/research report, or brochure. The main components need to include: author name (who), date of publication (when), title of the work (what), and publication information (where). 'Retrieved from' is no longer used in electronic source references except when there is no publication date.

Reference

Stewart, H., Hyman, J., Carlson, A., & Frazão, E. (2016). The cost of satisfying fruit and vegetable recommendations in the Dietary Guidelines Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. http://purl.fdlp.gov/GPO/gpo69773

In-text Citation

Parenthetical: Numerous studies have replicated these results utilizing the same methods (Stewart et al., 2016).

Narrative: Stewart et al. (2016) highlights...

Note: When the communication is between you and another person, these are not included in the reference list and should be cited parenthetically. Interviews, letters, etc. used from existing publications should be referenced and cited based on the source type in which they reside (e.g., book).

In-text Citation

Parenthetical: Planning for the signing of the document was almost complete (J. Smith, personal communication, May 4, 2014).

Narrative: J. Smith (personal communication, May 4, 2014) highlights...

 

In-text Citation

Parenthetical: The trauma from the explosion affected the victims in different ways (K. Williams, interview, September 20, 2019).

Narrative: J. Smith (interview, September 20, 2019) highlights...

'Retrieved from' is no longer used in electronic source references except when there is no publication date.

Reference

White, S., & Ivie, R. (2013). Number of women in physics departments: a simulation analysis. (Report, pp. 1-13). Statistical Research Center of the American Institute of Physics. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED547644.pdf

In-text Citation

Parenthetical: Numerous studies have replicated these results utilizing the same methods (White & Ivie, 2013).

Narrative: White and Ivie (2016) highlights...

Citing a test review is similar to citing a chapter in an edited ebook. For the References list, instead of the name of a book, you use the name of the database, Mental Measurements Yearbook with Tests in Print. In-text citing follows the same format as other sources. The information needed for the reference and citation is in the detailed record and full text of the database.

Reference

Kush, J. C., & Shaw, S. R. (2010). Review of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Fourth Edition. From R. A. Spies, J. F. Carlson, & K. F. Geisinger (Eds.), The eighteenth mental measurements yearbook [Electronic version]. Retrieved from Mental Measurements Yearbook with Tests in Print, https://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?vid=9&sid=9faa1637-6626-4c3c-8072-a4c38207e89f%40sessionmgr120&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#

In-text Citation

Parenthetical: Numerous studies have replicated these results utilizing the same methods (Kush & Shaw, 2010).

Narrative: Kush and Shaw (2010) highlight...

'Retrieved from' is no longer used in electronic source references except when there is no publication date.

Reference

Hagen, C. K. (2016). We’ve been here: Possibilities for prolonging experiential intimacy in art [Masters of Fine Arts, Illinois State University]. http://ir.library.illinoisstate.edu/etd/504

In-text Citation

Parenthetical: Numerous studies have replicated these results utilizing the same methods (Hagen, 2016).

Narrative: Hagen (2016) highlights...

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