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APA Style

A quick overview of how to use the APA Style and examples of in-text citations and references for a variety of different sources.

Why Cite Overview

When you research a topic you may use information from articles, books, or the Open Web to support your ideas. Building upon the ideas and knowledge of other people is the way we as individuals build and contribute to the knowledge around us. When you integrate other peoples' ideas and work into your own, it is important to give those authors credit for their hard work.

Tips for researching and citing:

  • Take clear, accurate notes about where you found specific ideas.
  • Write down the complete citation information for each item you use.
  • Take advantage of online citing tools.
  • Use quotation marks when directly stating another person's words.
  • Always credit original authors for their information and ideas.

When to Cite

1. If you quote a resource, cite it.

2. If you paraphrase someone else's idea or statement, cite it.

3. If you're unsure, cite it.

4. If you state a fact that is not common knowledge, cite it.

table answering when to cite statements and if they are common knowledge or not

An in-text citation is like a tag within a paper, presentation, poster, etc. It tells the reader or listener where to find a source's information in the associated bibliography.


A reference is the actual source's information such as author, title, and year of publication. This information appears within a bibliography.

  • author(s) name,
  • the complete title of the work,
  • publication information, and
  • the date of publication.

Different types of sources will dictate the inclusion of different elements in a reference. Consult the Styles Guides page for more examples in different styles.


example of an MLA book reference

example of an APA book reference

example of an MLA electronic article reference

example of an APA electronic article reference