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APA Style

A quick overview of how to use the APA Style and examples of in-text citations and references for a variety of different sources.

Key changes with 7th edition

Key changes at a glance

  • Et al.: Use et al. in the first in-text citation for sources with three or more authors.
  • 3 to 20 authors: In the reference list, include all authors' names (up to 20).
  • 21 or more authors: In the reference list, include first nineteen authors' names, add an ellipsis (...), and then the last author's name.
  • Website names: Include the website name after the webpage title.
  • Publication location: The location of the publisher (i.e., city, country/state code) is no longer required.
  • Ebook publisher: The platform, format, or device (e.g., Kindle) for ebooks is no longer needed; format like a print book.
  • Retrieved from: The words Retrieved from before a URL is no longer required.
  • DOIs: DOIs are formatted the same as URLs. You do not need to write DOI:
  • Headings: Headings 3, 4, & 5 have been modified. See the Headings section on this page to see the updates.

Go to: In-Text Citations | References: Books, Articles, Web/Social Media | Headings

In-Text Citations

In-text Citation

Summary of Changes

6th edition example

7th edition example

Three or more authors
(6th ed., 6.12, p.175)
(7th ed., 8.17, p. 266)

Distinction between three to five authors and six or more authors is no longer used. With three or more authors, use the first author’s last name and "et al." the first time you cite the source.

6th edition required, with three to five authors, to include all author names in the first citation and then using the first author’s last name and "et al." subsequent times.

Parenthetical: The longitudinal study indicates a higher tendency for certain behavior (Fisher, Frey, Quaglia, Smith, & Lande, 2003).

Narrative: 1st citation – Fisher, Frey, Quaglia, Smith, and Lande (2003) have shown…
Subsequent citations – Fisher et al. (2003) made…

Parenthetical: The longitudinal study indicates a higher tendency for certain behavior (Fisher et al., 2003).

Narrative: Fisher et al. (2003) have shown…

 

Reference List

Books

Source Type

Summary of Changes

6th edition example

7th edition example

Book
(6th ed., 7.02, p. 202)
(7th ed., 9.8, p. 286; 9.24, p. 293)

Publisher location no longer required.
List up to twenty authors.
For twenty-one or more authors, list first nineteen authors, add in ellipsis (…), and then the last author.

Fisher, D., Frey, N., Quaglia, R. J., Smith, D., & Lande, L. L. (2018). Engagement by design: Creating learning environments where students thrive. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Literacy.

Fisher, D., Frey, N., Quaglia, R. J., Smith, D., & Lande, L. L. (2018). Engagement by design: Creating learning environments where students thrive. Corwin Literacy.

eBook
(6th ed., 7.02, p. 203)
(7th ed.,10.2, p. 321)

eBooks from research databases are treated the same as print works.

Edinger, S. K., & Sain, L. (2015). The hidden leader: Discover and develop greatness within your company. New York: AMACOM. Retrieved from ProQuest.com

Edinger, S. K., & Sain, L. (2015). The hidden leader: Discover and develop greatness within your company. AMACOM.

Chapter in an edited book
(6th ed.,7.02, p. 204)
(7th ed., p. 326)

Publisher location no longer required.

Pearlman, L. A. (2012). Moral dimensions of trauma therapies. In M. Mikulincer & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), The social psychology of morality: Exploring the causes of good and evil (pp. 311-28). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Pearlman, L. A. (2012). Moral dimensions of trauma therapies. In M. Mikulincer & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), The social psychology of morality: Exploring the causes of good and evil (pp. 311-28). American Psychological Association.

Articles

Source Type

Summary of Changes

6th edition example

7th edition example

Journal Article electronic with DOI
(6th ed., 7.01, p.198)
(7th ed., 10.1, p. 317)

DOI is included as a URL. The designator of doi is no longer used.

Li, L. C. (2014). Multiple trajectories and “good governance” in Asia: An introduction. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 44(2), 187-203. doi: 10.1080/00472336.2013.870827

Li, L. C. (2014). Multiple trajectories and “good governance” in Asia: An introduction. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 44(2), 187-203. https://doi.org/10.1080/00472336.2013.870827

Journal Article electronic without DOI
(6th ed., 7.01, p.199)
(7th ed., 10.1, p. 317)

URL is not included if from an academic database.
Retrieved from is no longer used.

Greene, M., & Shorter, P. (2012). Building conceptual understanding in precalculus. Transformative Dialogues: Teaching & Learning Journal, 6(2), 1-16. Retrieved from http://libproxy.lib.ilstu.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.libproxy.lib.ilstu.edu/docview/61969020?accountid=11578

Greene, M., & Shorter, P. (2012). Building conceptual understanding in precalculus. Transformative Dialogues: Teaching & Learning Journal, 6(2), 1-16.

Newspaper article - electronic
(6th ed., 7.01, p. 200)
(7th ed., 10.1, p. 320)

Retrieved from is no longer used.

Delgado, J. (2014, June 2). Work to begin on Grant Park skate park. The Chicago Tribune. Retrieved from http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2014-06-02/news/ct-grant-park-new-skate-park-met-20140602_1_skate-park-tif-funds-grant-park-conservancy

Delgado, J. (2014, June 2). Work to begin on Grant Park skate park. The Chicago Tribune. http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2014-06-02/news/ct-grant-park-new-skate-park-met-20140602_1_skate-park-tif-funds-grant-park-conservancy

 

Web / Social Media

Source Type

Summary of Changes

6th edition example

7th edition example

General web page
(6th ed., 7.11, p. 215)
(7th ed., 10.16, p. 351)

Retrieved from is no longer used.
Title of the page is italicized.
The company / web site owner is included before URL.

Hatch, R. (2014, May 22). The renegades of BioMath. Retrieved from http://stories.illinoisstate.edu/university/ media-relations/report/renegades-biomath/

Hatch, R. (2014, May 22). The renegades of BioMath. Illinois State University. https://news.illinoisstate.edu/2014/05/renegades-biomath/

 

Online Video / YouTube
(6th ed., 7.11, p. 215)
(7th ed, 10.12, p. 344)

Type of video format no longer used.
Retrieved from no longer used.
Hosting site is included before the URL.

ISUtube1857. (2012). Celebration of President Bowman’s Legacy at Illinois State University [Online Video]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=P_vNPD1rhFY&feature=youtu.be

ISUtube1857. (2012, December 7). Celebration of President Bowman’s Legacy at Illinois State University [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=P_vNPD1rhFY&feature=youtu.be

Twitter / Facebook / etc.
(6th ed., 7.11, p. 215)
(7th ed, 10.15, p. 348)

Retrieved from no longer used.

Beyoncé. (2016, April 25). #LEMONADE the Visual Album Available Now! [Facebook update]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/beyonce/ photos/10156956506310601.

Beyoncé. (2016, April 25). #LEMONADE the Visual Album Available Now! [Facebook update]. https://www.facebook.com/beyonce/ photos/10156956506310601.

 

Headings

Heading

Summary of Changes

6th edition example

7th edition example

Heading 1
(6th ed., section 3.03)
(7th ed., section 2.27 )

No changes, except APA 7 identifies the capitilization formatting as Title Case

Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Headings

Paragraph text...

Centered, Boldface, Title Case Heading

Paragraph text...

 

Heading 2
(6th ed., section 3.03)
(7th ed., section 2.27 )

No changes, except APA 7 identifies the capitilization formatting as Title Case.

Flush left, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading

Paragraph text...

Flush left, Boldface, Title Case Heading

Paragraph text...

Heading 3
(6th ed., section 3.03)
(7th ed., section 2.27 )

In APA 7, Heading 3 is left aligned, italicized, uses title case, and the paragraph text begins on the next line.

Indented, boldface, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. Paragraph text continues on the same line as the same paragraph.

Flush Left, Boldface Italic, Title Case Heading

Paragraph text...

Heading 4
(6th ed., section 3.03)
(7th ed., section 2.27 )

In APA 7, Heading 4 is not italicized and uses title case. Similar to APA 6, it is indented, ends with a period, and paragraph text begins after the period.

Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. Paragraph text continues on the same line as the same paragraph.

Indented, Boldface, Title Case Heading Ending With a Period. Paragraph text continues on the same line as the same paragraph.

Heading 5
(6th ed., section 3.03)
(7th ed., section 2.27 )

In APA 7, Heading 5 is bold and italicized and uses title case. Similar to APA 6, it is indented, ends with a period, and paragraph text begins after the period.

Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. Paragraph text continues on the same line as the same paragraph.

Indented, Boldface Italic, Title Case Heading Ending With a Period. Paragraph text continues on the same line as the same paragraph.

 

Page adapted from the following online guides:

Forbes, C. (2020, May 15). APA 6/7 Comparison. East Carolina University Libraries. https://libguides.ecu.edu/c.php?g=982594&p=7136118

OWLL. (2020, April 15). APA 6th vs. 7th edition. Massey University. https://owll.massey.ac.nz/referencing/apa-6th-vs-7th-edition.php