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Systemic Racism

History of Systemic Racism

The resources highlighted on this page are meant to provide historical context for the racial injustice that is still taking place today. The page is divided into the following categories to provide a sampling of material:


Book Cover for Whitenss of a Different Color: European Immigrants and the Alchemy of Race  by Matthew Frye Jacobson
book cover for: America on Fire: The Untold History of Police Violence and Black Rebellion Since the 1960s
book cover for anthropology and the racial politics of culture
Book Cover for Race and racism in the United States: an Encyclopedia of the American Mosaic
Book Cover for America for Americans by Erika Lee
Book Cover for the Invention of the White Race by Theodore W. Allen
Book Cover for the History of White People by Nell Irvin Painter
Book Cover for Caste: The Origins of Our Discontents by Isabel Wilkerson
Book Cover for A People's History of the United States by Howard Zinn
Book cover for How to HIde an Empire: a history of the greater united states by  Daniel Immerwahr
Book Cover for Us and Them by Jim Carnes
Book cover for Racism: a Critical Analysis by Mike Cole
Book Cover for A Different Mirror by Ronald Takaki
Book cover for No Right to Be Idle: The Invention of Disability, 1840s–1930s by  Sarah F. Rose
Book Cover for Transgender History, second edition: The Roots of Today's Revolution by Susan Stryker
Book Cover for Heart of Whiteness by Julian B. Carter
Book Cover for A Queer History of the United States by Michael Bronski
Book Cover for A Queer History of the United States for Young People
Book Cover for A Disability History of the United States by Kim E. Nielsen
Book Cover for One Drop of Blood: The American Misadventure of Race by Scott Malcomson
Book Cover for The True Flag by Stephen Kinzer
Book Cover for Racism: A Short History by George M. Fredrickson
Book Cover for How the Word is Passed

Anti-Black Racism

Book cover for The Color Line: A Short Introduction by David Lyons
Book cover for Stamped from the Beginning by Ibram X. Kendi
Book cover for Slavery at Sea: Terror, Sex, and Sickness in the Middle Passage by Sowande' M. Mustakeem
Book cover for Slave Patrols by Sally E. Hadden
Book cover for the American Slave Coast by Ned Sublette and Constance Sublette
Book cover for Southern Horrors: Women and the Politics of Rape and Lynching by Crystal Nicole Feimster
Book cover for When Rape was Legal by Rachel A. Feinstein
Book cover for an African American and Latinx History of the United States by Paul Ortiz
Book cover for Exposing Slavery by Matthew Fox-Amato
Book cover for They Were Her Property by Stephanie E. Jones-Rogers
Book cover for They Left Great Marks on Me by Kidada E. Williams
Book cover for Legacies of Lynching by Jonathan Markovitz
Book cover for Divided Mastery by Jonathan D. Martin
Book cover for The Slaves' Gamble: Choosing Sides in the War of 1812 by Gene Allen Smith
Book cover for the Delectable Negro by Vincent Woodard
Book cover for the Archaeology of Northern Slavery and Freedom by James A. Delle
Book cover for My Bondage and My Freedom by Frederick Douglass
Book cover for Love & Theft by Eric Lott
Book cover for Souls of Black Folk by W. E. B. DuBois
Book cover for the Original Black Elite by Elizabeth Dowling Taylor
Book cover for Reconstruction by Brooks D. Simpson
Book cover for Stony the Road by Henry Louis Gates Jr.
Book cover for Dark Sky Rising: Reconstruction and the Dawn of Jim Crow by Henry Louis Gates Jr.
Book cover for 1919, The Year of Racial Violence by David F. Krugler
Book cover for Tulsa 1921: Reporting a Massacre by Mandy Krehbiel
Book cover for The Mis-education of the Negro by Carter Godwin Woodson
Book cover for The Color of Law by Richard Rothstein
Book cover for White Flight by Kevin M. Kruse
Book cover for First Class by Alison Stewart
Book cover for the White Architects of Black Education by William H. Watkins
Book cover for Medical Apartheid by Harriet A. Washington
Book cover for Medical Bondage by Deirdre Cooper Owens
Book cover for Acres of Skin by Allen M. Hornblum
Book cover for Examining Tuskegee by Susan Reverby
Book cover for the Ghetto in Global History by Wendy Z. Goldman and Joe Trotter Jr.
Book cover for the Condemnation of Blackness by Khalil Gibran Muhammad
Book cover for Devils Walking by Stanley Nelson
Book cover for Reconsidering Southern Labor History by Matthew Hild and Keri Leigh Merritt
Book cover for The Second Coming of the KKK by Linda Gordon
Book cover for Overground Railroad by Candacy Taylor
Book cover for
Book cover for Slavery by Another Name by Douglas A. Blackman
Book cover for Newspaper Wars by Sid Bedingfield
Book cover for Democracy in Black by Eddie Glaude
Book cover for James Baldwin: the FBI File by William J. Maxwell
Book cover for Enemies: A History of the FBI by Tim Weiner
Book cover for
Book cover for the Assassination of Fred Hampton by Jeffrey Haas
Book cover for Prison Power by Lisa M. Carrigan
Book cover for At the Dark End of the Street by Danielle L. McGuire
Book cover for Cost of Racism for People of Color by Alvin N. Alvarez, Christopher T. H. Liang, and Helen A. Neville
Book cover for White By Law by Ian Haney Lo'pez
Book cover for Deep Inequality by Earl Wysong and Robert Perucci
Book cover for Farming While Black by Leah Penniman and Karen Washington
Book cover for Dark Alliance by Gary Webb
Book cover for  Monumental harm : reckoning with Jim Crow Era Confederate monuments by Roger Hartley

Racism Against Indigenous Peoples of North America

Book Cover for An Indigenous Peoples' History of the United States
Book Cover for An American Genocide: The United States and the California Indian Catastrophe, 1846-1873
Book Cover for  The other slavery : the uncovered story of Indian enslavement in America by Andres Reséndez
Book Cover for Tragic Encounters: The People's History of Native Americans by Page Smith
Book Cover for The Heartbeat of Wounded Knee: Native America from 1890 to the Present
Book Cover for Killers of the Flower Moon: The Osage Murders and the Birth of the FBI by David Grann
Book cover for the Earth is Weeping: the epic story of the indian wars for the american west by peter cozzens
Book Cover for Plundered Skulls and Stolen Spirits by Chip Colwell
Book Cover for Empire of the Summer Moon: Quanah Parker and the Rise and Fall of the Comanches, the Most Powerful Indian Tribe in American History  by S.C. Gwynne
Book Cover for American Settler Colonialism: a History by W. Hixson
Book Cover for The Conquest of Texas: Ethnic Cleansing in the Promised Land, 1820–1875 by Gary Clayton Anderson
Book cover for Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West by Dee Brown
Book Cover for Rez Life: An Indian's Journey Through Reservation Life by David Treuer
Book Cover for The Beginning and End of Rape: Confronting Sexual Violence in Native America by Sarah Deer
Book Cover for Yellow Dirt: A Poisoned Land and the Betrayal of the Navajos
Book cover for Education for Extinction by David Wallace Adams
Book cover for the Longest Trail : Writings on American Indian History, Culture, and Politics
Book cover for The American Indian Rights Movement by Eric Braun
Book cover for Standing with Standing Rock by Nick Estes and Jaskiran Dhillon
Book Cover for The Archaeology of Removal in North America by Terrance Weik
Book cover for Conquest: Sexual Violence and American Indian Genocide by Andrea Smith
Book cover for Unworthy Republic: The Dispossession of Native Americans and the Road to Indian Territory
Book Cover for City Indian: Native American Activism in Chicago, 1893–1934  by Rosalyn R. LaPier
Book cover for Plagues, Politics, and Policy: A Chronicle of the Indian Health Service, 1955-2008  by  David DeJong
Book cover for As Long as Grass Grows: The Indigenous Fight for Environmental Justice, from Colonization to Standing Rock by Dina Gilio-Whitaker
Book Cover for Coloniality of the US/Mexico Border by Roberto D. Hernández

Racism Against Hispanic, Latinx and Indigenous Peoples of Central and South America

Book Cover for  An African American and Latinx history of the United States by Paul Ortiz
Book Cover for The Injustice Never Leaves You: Anti-Mexican Violence in Texas
Book Cover for Forgotten Dead: Mob Violence against Mexicans in the United States, 1848-1928 by William D. Carrigan
Book cover for The Battle For Paradise: Puerto Rico Takes on the Disaster Capitalists  by Naomi Klein
Book Cover for War Against All Puerto Ricans: Revolution and Terror in America's Colony by  Nelson A Denis
Book Cover for The Lynching of Mexicans in the Texas Borderlands by Nicholas Villanueva Jr.
Book cover for The Tainos: Rise and Decline of the People Who Greeted Columbus
Book Cover for Murder at the Sleepy Lagoon: Zoot Suits, Race, and Riot in Wartime Eduardo Obregon Pagan
Book cover for The Afro-Latin@ Reader: History and Culture in the United States
Book Cover for Gender Violence at the U.S.–Mexico Border: Media Representation and Public Response
Book Cover for Open Veins of Latin America: Five Centuries of the Pillage of a Continent by  Eduardo Galeano
Book Cover: From Out of the Shadows: Mexican Women in Twentieth-Century America by Vicki Ruiz
Book Cover for Empire's Workshop by Greg Grandin
Book Cover for New Mexico's Stolen Lands: A History of Racism, Fraud and Deceit
Book Cover: Exploitation, Inequality, and Resistance: A History of Latin America since Columbus
Book cover for  Unbecoming blackness : the diaspora cultures of Afro-Cuban America by , Antonio M. López
Book Cover for Being Brown in Dixie by Cameron D. Lippard
Book Cover for A History of Violence: Living and Dying in Central America by Oscar Martinez
Book Cover for Chicano! The History of the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement  by F. Arturo Rosales
Book Cover for No One is Illegal: Fighting Racism and State Violence on the U.S.-Mexico Border by Justin Akers Chacón
Book Cover for the Texas Revolution and the U.S.- Mexican Wary by Paul Calore
Taino Revival: Critical Perspectives on Puerto Rican Identity and Cultural Politics
book cover for  Mestizo in America : generations of Mexican ethnicity in the suburban Southwest
Book Cover for Crucible of Struggle: A History of Mexican Americans from Colonial Times to the Present Era
Book Cover for The Land of Open Graves: Living and Dying on the Migrant Trail by Jason De Leon
Book Cover for The End of the Myth: From the Frontier to the Border Wall in the Mind of America by Greg Grandin
Book Cover for Eating NAFTA: Trade, Food Policies, and the Destruction of Mexico
Book Cover for Making a Killing: Femicide, Free Trade, and La Frontera by Alicia Gaspar de Alba
Book Cover for U.S. Presidents and Latin American Interventions: Pursuing Regime Change in the Cold War by Michael Grow

Racism Against Arab and Asian Peoples

Book Cover for Driven Out: The Forgotten War against Chinese Americans
Book Cover for Uprooted: The Japanese American Experience During World War II Hardcover  by Albert Marrin
Book Cover for The Making of Asian America: A History by Erika Lee
Book Cover for Alien Nation: Chinese Migration in the Americas from the Coolie Era through World War II by Elliot Young
Book Cover for Yellow Peril!: An Archive of Anti-Asian Fear by John Kuo Wei Tchen
Book cover for Myth of the Model Minority: Asian Americans Facing Racism by Rosalind S. Chou
Book Cover for Ghosts of Gold Mountain: The Epic Story of the Chinese Who Built the Transcontinental Railroad by Gordon Chang
Book Cover for The Good Immigrants: How the Yellow Peril Became the Model Minority by Madeline Y. Hsu
Book cover for Everything You Need to Know about Asian-American History by  Himilce Novas
Book cover for How Does It Feel to Be a Problem : Being Young and Arab in America by Moustafa Bayoumi
Book Cover for American Hate: Survivors Speak Out by Arjun Singh Sethi
Book cover for Scapegoats of September 11th by Michael Welch
Book cover for We Too Sing America by Deepa Iyer
Book Cover for a Shadow Over Palestine by Keith P. Feldman
Book cover for Backlash 9/11: Middle Eastern and Muslim Americans Respond by Anny Bakalian
Book Cover for Concentration Camps on the Home Front: Japanese Americans in the House of Jim Crow
Book Cover for The Opium Debate And Chinese Exclusion Laws In The Nineteenth-Century American West
Book Cover for Body Evidence: Intimate Violence against South Asian Women in America  by Shamita Das Dasgupta
Book cover for Flashpoints for Asian American Studies by Cathy Schlund-Vials
Book cover for the The Chinese Exclusion Act: What It Can Teach Us about America  by B. Railton
Book cover for The Rise and Fall of America's Concentration Camp Law: Civil Liberties Debates from the Internment to McCarthyism and the Radical 1960s  by Masumi Izumi
Book Cover for Empire's Tracks: Indigenous Nations, Chinese Workers, and the Transcontinental Railroad  by Manu Karuka
Book Cover for A Different Shade of Justice: Asian American Civil Rights in the South by Stephanie Hinnershitz
Book Cover for The Fight for Asian American Civil Rights: Liberal Protestant Activism, 1900-1950  by Sarah Griffith
Book Cover for  Asian America: Chinese and Japanese in the United States since 1850 Reprint Edition by Roger Daniels
Book Cover for Two Faces of Exclusion: The Untold History of Anti-Asian Racism in the United States
Book Cover for Gold mountain turned to dust : essays on the legal history of the Chinese in the nineteenth-century American West
Book Cover for Elusive Refuge: Chinese Migrants in the Cold War  by Laura Madokoro

Video Clips

Source: Playlist for CrashCourse. Black American History series. YouTube.

Source: AJ+ (2020, June 28). The Racist Origins of the U.S. Police Force. YouTube.

Source: AJ+ (2021, March 25). The Roots Of Anti-Asian Racism. YouTube.

Source: Smithsonian Channel. (2018, February 16). Malcolm X’s Fiery Speech Addressing Police Brutality. YouTube.

Source: Vox. (2017, December 7). The US medical system is still haunted by slavery. YouTube.

Source: Vox. (2019, October 14). How the US stole thousands of Native American children. YouTube.

Source: Netflix. (2020, June 20).  13th | Clip. YouTube.

Source: Vox. (2019, February 27). The Massacre of Tulsa's "Black Wall Street". YouTube.

Source: Vox. (2019, July 19). The Dark History of "Gasoline Baths" at the Border. YouTube.

Source: PBS News. (2020, April 18). How ‘urban renewal’ decimated Black communities in North Carolina. YouTube.

Source: Vox. (2020, March 10). How San Francisco Erased a Neighborhood. YouTube.

Source: Vox. (2020, October 12). How the US poisoned Navajo Nation. YouTube.

Source: New York Times. (2015, November 28). Heroin and the War on Drugs | Retro Report. YouTube.

Source: Vox. (2019, November 4). How Florida legally terrorized gay students. YouTube.

Source: New York Post. (2018, October 1). Elaine Massacre: The bloodiest racial conflict in U.S. history | Dark History. YouTube.


Humanity Archive

With the most compelling narratives and diverse conversations, this is not the history you learned in school.

At Liberty

Episode: The Tulsa Race Massacre and the Violence of Forgetting

1619: Podcast

“1619” is a New York Times audio series hosted by Nikole Hannah-Jones that examines the long shadow of American slavery.

Red Nation Podcast

The Red Nation Podcast features discussions on Indigenous history, politics, and culture from a left perspective.

Black History Year

Black History Year connects you to the history, thinkers, and activists that are left out of the mainstream conversations.

Intersectionality Matters

Episode: What Slavery Engendered

An Intersectional Look at 1619

Code Switch

Episode: Chicago's Red Summer

Learning For Justice

Deepen your knowledge and improve your practice with "Learning for Justice" podcasts. Each episode explores a topic or framework and is produced with educators in mind.

Side Door: "Confronting the Past"

The Smithsonian created a podcast that covers the 1921 riot which destroyed almost 40 blocks of a wealthy black neighborhood in North Tulsa, Oklahoma.